N. The technology of making alcohol from Jerusalem artichoke is given below.

N. The technology of making alcohol from Jerusalem artichoke is given below.


Vitamins. Jerusalem artichoke tubers are rich in the whole group of B vitamins, especially biotin and vitamin C.

Vitamin composition in Jerusalem artichoke tubers.

The name of vitamins


mg / 100 g of dry solution

μg / 100 g of dry districts

B1 (thiamine)



B3 (pantatel set)



B5 (niacin)



B6 (pyridoxine)



B7 (biotin)



C (ascorbic acid)




Therapeutic properties were studied on the basis of literature sources and on the analysis of research conducted on the basis of the problem laboratory of biochemical ecology of IFDMA.

The development of cosmetics based on Jerusalem artichoke was carried out according to the technical conditions developed by the Department of Pharmacy and Industrial Technology of Medicines of the Faculty of Pharmacy of the National Medical University. OO Bogomolets.

The development of dietary supplements based on Jerusalem artichoke powder was carried out according to the technical conditions developed by the Department of Pharmacy and Industrial Technology of Medicines of the Faculty of Pharmacy of the National Medical University. OO Bogomolets, Institute of Botany. IG Kholodny NASU, Institute of Hygiene and Medicine. ecology named after OM Marzayev AMSU.

Production of Jerusalem artichoke alcohol was carried out at the Pidgay distillery of the Ivano-Frankivsk production association of the alcohol industry on the technology developed in the problem laboratory of the National University of Food Technologies under the guidance of Professor VN Shvets, Doctor of Technical Sciences .. help writing an lab report.

The technology of making alcohol from Jerusalem artichoke is given below.

Conclusions. Jerusalem artichoke, taking into account the unique biological properties of growth and development, should be attributed to the culture of industrial botany and widely used as a phytomeliorative plant.

The formation of a strong vegetative mass and root system, unpretentiousness to the soil – these are the properties that characterize the culture as such, which can undoubtedly be used for reclamation of ash dumps.

The most unique property and advantage over other plants – the presence in its composition of insulin, which in the human body when eating tubers is converted into an easily digestible product of fructose.

The content of natural polysaccharides of plant origin (insulin) allows products made from Jerusalem artichoke to have strong regenerating, adsorbing properties.

Alcohol made from Jerusalem artichoke will preserve valuable fodder crops (potatoes, wheat), obtaining the highest quality alcohol to use it for the manufacture of balms, medicinal extracts, infusions.


Biology: the structure of the biosphere. Abstract

Backward matter of the biosphere. Atmosphere. Hydrosphere. Lithosphere. Living organisms (living matter)

The biosphere is the highest level of organization of life on our planet. It distinguishes living matter – the totality of all living organisms, inanimate or backward matter and biocidal matter (soil).

The main function of the biosphere is to ensure the circulation of chemical elements, which is expressed in the circulation of substances between the atmosphere, soil, hydrosphere and living organisms.

The biosphere includes: living matter formed by a set of organisms; biogenic substance created in the course of vital activity of organisms (atmospheric gases, coal, oil, peat, limestones, etc.); backward substance formed without the participation of living organisms; biomaterial, which is a joint result of the life of organisms and non-biological processes (eg, soil).

Backward matter of the biosphere

The boundaries of the biosphere are determined by environmental factors that make it impossible for living organisms to exist. The upper limit is approximately 20 km above the planet’s surface and is bounded by an ozone ball, which traps the life-threatening short-wavelength parts of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Thus, living organisms can exist in the troposphere and lower strata of the stratosphere. In the hydrosphere of the earth’s crust, organisms penetrate to the entire depth of the oceans – up to 10-11 km. In the lithosphere, life occurs at a depth of 3.5-7.5 km, due to the temperature of the earth’s interior and the condition of water penetration in the liquid state.


The gas shell consists mainly of nitrogen and oxygen. It contains small amounts of carbon dioxide (0.03%) and ozone. The state of the atmosphere greatly affects the physical, chemical and biological processes on the Earth’s surface and in the aquatic environment. The most important for biological processes are: oxygen used for respiration and mineralization of dead organic matter, carbon dioxide, which participates in photosynthesis, and ozone, which shields the earth’s surface from solid ultraviolet radiation. Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor were formed largely due to volcanic activity, and oxygen – as a result of photosynthesis.


Water is the most important component of the biosphere and one of the necessary factors for the existence of living organisms. Most of it (95%) is located in the oceans, which occupies about 70% of the globe and contains 1,300 million km3. Surface waters (lakes, rivers) include only 0.182 million km3, and the amount of water in living organisms is only 0.001 million km3. Significant water reserves (24 million km3) are contained in glaciers. Of great importance are gases dissolved in water: oxygen and carbon dioxide. Their number is wide, varying with temperature and the presence of living organisms. The carbon dioxide contained in water is 60 times greater than in the atmosphere. The hydrosphere was formed in connection with the development of the lithosphere, which during the geological history of the Earth emitted a large amount of water vapor.


The bulk of organisms living within the lithosphere is in the soil layer, the depth of which does not exceed a few meters. Soil includes minerals formed during the destruction of rocks, and organic matter – the products of life of organisms.

Living organisms (living matter)

Although the boundaries of the biosphere are quite narrow, living organisms within them are very unevenly distributed. At high altitudes and in the depths of the hydrosphere and lithosphere, organisms are relatively rare. Life is concentrated mainly on the Earth’s surface, in the soil and in the surface of the ocean. The total mass of living organisms is estimated at 2.43×1012 tons. The biomass of terrestrial organisms is 99.2% represented by green plants and 0.8% by animals and microorganisms. In contrast, in the ocean, the share of plants is 6.3%, and the share of animals and microorganisms – 93.7% of all biomass. Life is focused mainly on land. The total biomass of the ocean is only 0.03×1012 tons, or 0.13% of the biomass of all creatures living on Earth.

An important regularity is observed in the distribution of living organisms by species composition. Of the total number of species, 21% are plants, but their contribution to total biomass is 99%. Among animals, 96% of species are invertebrates and only 4% are vertebrates, of which a tenth are mammals. The mass of living matter is only 0.01-0.02% of the backward matter of the biosphere, but it plays a leading role in geochemical processes. Substances and energy needed for metabolism, organisms draw from the environment. Limited amounts of living matter are reproduced, transformed and decomposed. Annually, due to the activity of plants and animals, about 10% of biomass is reproduced.


Vernadsky VI “Philosophical thoughts of a naturalist” M. – 1988. Vernadsky VI “Biosphere and noosphere” M. – 1989. Vernadsky VI “Scientific thought as a planetary phenomenon” M. – 1989. Vernadsky VI “The beginning and eternity of life “M. – 1989. Lapo AV” Traces of former biospheres “M. – 1979. Lemeza NA” Biology. Home tutor “M. – 1997.


Biosphere as a source of resources. Abstract

Natural resources and their use. Limits of stability. Bioproductivity of ecosystems

Natural resources and their use

Biological, including food, resources of the planet determine the possibilities of human life on Earth, and mineral and energy are the basis of material production of human society. Among the natural resources of the planet there are exhaustible and inexhaustible resources.

Inexhaustible resources. Inexhaustible resources are divided into space, climate and water. This is the energy of solar radiation, sea waves, wind. Given the huge mass of air and water environment of the planet is considered inexhaustible atmospheric air and water. The selection is relative. For example, fresh water can already be considered as an exhaustible resource. as in many regions of the globe there was an acute shortage of water. We can talk about the uneven distribution, and the impossibility of its use due to pollution. Conditionally consider the oxygen of the atmosphere as an inexhaustible resource.

Modern environmental scientists think that at the current level of technology for the use of atmospheric air and water, these resources can be considered as inexhaustible only in the development and implementation of large-scale programs aimed at restoring their quality.

Exhaustive resources. Exhaustive resources are divided into renewable and non-renewable.

Renewables include flora and fauna, soil fertility. Among the replenished natural resources, the forest plays an important role in human life. Forest is no less important as a geographical and environmental factor. Forests prevent soil erosion, retain surface water, ie serve to accumulate moisture, help maintain groundwater levels. The forests are inhabited by animals of material and aesthetic value to humans: ungulates, fur-bearing animals and game. In our country, forests occupy about 30% of its land area and are one of the natural resources.

Non-renewable resources include minerals. Their use by man began in the Neolithic era. The first metals to be used were native gold and copper. They were able to extract ores containing copper, tin, silver, and lead as early as 4000 BC. At present, man has drawn into the sphere of his industrial activity the vast majority of known mineral resources. If at the dawn of civilization man used for his shortcomings only about 20 chemical elements, at the beginning of the XX century – about 60, now more than 100 – almost the entire Mendeleev table.

Annually extracted (extracted from the geosphere) about 100 billion tons of ores, fuels, minerals, which leads to depletion of these resources. More and more different ores, coal, oil and gas are extracted from the earth’s interior. In modern conditions, much of the Earth’s surface is plowed or is fully or partially cultivated pastures for domestic animals.