He offered to pay for the work of those who produced more products in proportion to their contribution.

He offered to pay for the work of those who produced more products in proportion to their contribution.

The manager’s workplace is equipped with technical means in accordance with the types of work performed by the manager. The manager’s workplace should be: tools for compiling and copying text documents, drawing, document storage and retrieval, document processing, administrative communication and signaling, display of audio and visual information, computer equipment.

Tools for composing and copying text documents: PCs, dictaphones.

Voice recorders are devices for tape recording of oral speech and its reproduction for further processing. The dictaphone has a number of important advantages – portability, fast search on a film of the necessary record, remote control, an opportunity to reduce speed of reproduction of language in comparison with speed with which the record was made.

Tools for the use of drawings. Drawing instruments, machines, tools and devices are used in the offices of some managers (chief engineers, designers, etc.).

Means of storage and retrieval of documents. These include file equipment and document storage facilities.

Document storage facilities include document boxes, equipment for hanging them, recorders, and so on.

Document processing tools. These tools are designed mainly to perform technical operations for document processing. Fastening and gluing devices can be useful in the manager’s workplace.

Means of administrative communication and signaling. The most important element of the equipment of the manager’s workplace is a set of technical devices that provide communication between the manager and the subscriber both within the enterprise and outside it. Such devices include acoustic and visual search and call facilities, as well as telephone equipment.


Motivation: theoretical foundations. Abstract

The abstract provides information about the theoretical foundations of motivation. In particular, the concept and essence of motivation, meaningful theories of motivation and process theories of motivation are considered.

The concept and essence of motivation

It is possible to activate an organized system to obtain the desired result only by a certain influence of the governing body or person. Certain tools are needed to influence the elements of the system to make it work. One such tool is motivation. In order to effectively move towards the goal, the leader must not only plan and organize the work, but also force people to perform it according to the developed plan.

Motivation in a broad sense is the process of motivating employees to work to achieve the goals of the organization.

From this definition we can conclude that the effective implementation of the motivation function requires:

awareness of what motivates the worker to work; understanding how to direct these motivations in the direction of achieving the goals of the organization.

Psychology and sociology view motivation as a behavioral identification of needs focused on achieving goals.

Need is a special state of the individual’s psyche, dissatisfaction perceived by him, a feeling of lack (lack) of something, a reflection of the discrepancy between the internal state and external conditions. The needs are divided into:

needs of the first kind, which are essentially physiological (needs for food, sleep, etc.); needs of the second kind, which are socio-psychological in nature (needs for respect, power, recognition of merit, etc.).

The needs of the first kind are inherent in man genetically, and the second – is a consequence of his social life.

Needs cannot be directly observed or measured. Their existence can be judged only by observing the behavior of people.

The need that is actually felt by a person, causes him a state of orientation to take a specific action (actions) aimed at meeting this need. This process is an incentive. Thus, motivation is a need realized in terms of the need to take specific targeted action. Thus concrete actions (behavior) of the person are considered as means of satisfaction of need.

When a person achieves the goal, his need may be:

satisfied; partially satisfied; dissatisfied.

The degree of satisfaction of needs affects the motivations (or motives) of human behavior in the future.

Needs arouse a person’s desire (aspiration) to satisfy them. Therefore, the essence of motivation is to create conditions that allow employees to feel that they can meet their needs by such behavior that ensures the achievement of the goals of the organization.

Rewards are a tool to motivate people to work effectively. In the theory of management, remuneration means a wide range of specific tools based on the system of human values. There are two types of rewards:

internal – it is given by the work itself, its effectiveness, content, significance, etc .; external – his employee receives from the organization (salary, promotion, benefits, privileges, etc.).

Historical aspect of motivation. In the history of the theory of motivation, the following stages can be distinguished:

stage of simple motivation (traditional approach). The essence of this approach was to use the policy of “whip and gingerbread”: actions that are considered useful – are rewarded, and harmful (undesirable) – are punished. An example of this type of motivation is Taylor motivation. He offered to pay for the work of those who produced more products in proportion to their contribution. The consequence of this approach to motivation was a significant increase in productivity. However, a simple “gingerbread” does not always make a person work hard. Workers in modern organizations are much more knowledgeable and secure than in the past. Therefore, the motives of their work are much more complex and difficult to influence; stage of socio-psychological motivation. Its essence is to use in the management of methods of psychology and sociology. It is based on two concepts. The first – psychological motivation: the use of the theory of the subconscious S. Freud. The main thesis of this concept is that at the subconscious level a person does not always behave rationally. The second concept of socio-psychological motivation. Its founder is considered to be Elton Mayo (Hawthorne experiments).

Meaningful theories of motivation

Substantive theories of motivation are based on the identification of such internal needs that force people to act this way and not otherwise. In other words, meaningful theories of motivation are attempts to identify and classify the needs of people that motivate them to action. Knowing the needs of subordinates, the manager can create conditions for their satisfaction in such a way as to ensure the achievement of the goals of the organization.

The most well-known meaningful theories of motivation are:

Abraham Maslow’s theory of hierarchies of needs; Clayton Alderfer’s ERG theory; David McClelland’s theory of needs; Frederick Herzberg’s theory of motivational hygiene.

1. The theory of the hierarchy of needs of Abraham Maslow is based on:

the thesis that human behavior is usually directed at trying to satisfy his strongest need at the moment; the assumption that human needs have a hierarchical structure, ie they can be ordered according to the criterion of increasing their importance to man; the assumption that the strongest need determines a person’s behavior until it is satisfied. If there are two or more equally strong needs at compare and contrast essay 123helpme the same time, then the lower level need is dominant. This means that the needs are met in a certain order: the needs of the lower level must be reasonably satisfied before the needs of the higher level become essential for the person.

The hierarchy of needs according to A. Maslow can be represented as follows.

First-order needs (physiological, basic) are related to ensuring the physical survival of man (needs for food, housing, family, etc.). Such needs are met through the wage system.

After satisfying an acceptable measure of basic needs in a given society, the needs of the next level, the need for security, become important. Such needs mean that basic needs will continue to be met. Ways to meet such needs can be: pension system; insurance; rights provided by length of service, trade union membership, etc.

Next, the needs are met in the following sequence:

affiliation needs are the needs to unite with other people (belonging to a company, working group, sports team, etc.); needs for respect – the need to satisfy a person’s selfishness (awareness of personal achievements, competence and recognition by other people); needs for self-realization – the need to realize their potential, growth as individuals.

Thus, Maslow’s theory states that people’s desire for work is based on their many needs. Therefore, in order to motivate the subordinate, the leader must give him the opportunity to meet his needs, but so as to ensure the achievement of the goals of the entire organization.

Table 1. The essential characteristics of the needs of the pyramid A. Maslow.

Physiological needs

Security needs

Social needs

The need for respect

The need for self-realization

Needs that a person must meet in order to survive (basic needs for food, water, housing, etc.) Effective management is ensured by appropriate remuneration mechanisms and the creation of appropriate working conditions

Associated with the desire for a stable, safe state, protected from fear, pain, disease, etc. Effective management is carried out by creating a clear and reliable system of social insurance for workers, clear and fair rules for regulating their activities, wages above the subsistence level, not involving them in making risky decisions and actions related to risk and change

Associated with the desire of man to participate in joint activities, public events, to be a member of any association of organizations, to belong to a certain class, and so on. Effective management is ensured by the assembly of functions that require an expanded scope of social contacts

These needs reflect the desire of people to be competent, strong, capable, confident, as well as the need for others to recognize them as such. Effective management is ensured by the use of various forms of expression of recognition and achievements

Needs are manifested in the desire of man to make the most of their knowledge, abilities, skills and abilities. For effective management, it is necessary to give workers original tasks, the implementation of which requires creativity and freedom of action