Emigration is the departure of the able-bodied population from the country outside its borders.

Emigration is the departure of the able-bodied population from the country outside its borders.

This is primarily due to the fact that it has not been able to gain such experience in the USSR, it lacks a sufficient number of bodies, personnel who could pursue an independent scientifically sound foreign economic policy.

Ukraine needs global economic ties in order to overcome the deep economic crisis faster, to develop the productive forces stably and rapidly, and to raise the living standards of the population on this basis. As I have already mentioned, a country that does not engage in foreign trade, does not develop economic ties with other countries in the world, is forced to increase production costs by about one and a half to two times.

Ukraine is taking the first steps towards joining the world economy. This is facilitated by the creation of a certain legal framework, the adoption of relevant laws. Such laws are the Law of Ukraine “On Foreign Economic Activity” (April 1991), the Law “On the Establishment of an Export-Import Bank” (January 1992), the Law “On Foreign Investments” (March 1992) and others, decrees of the Cabinet Ministers, etc.

In the past, Ukraine had economic ties with 123 countries, but the main decisions on their development were made in Moscow. The same applied to the foreign economic activity of about 1,400 enterprises of Ukraine.

Objectively, the reason that currently hinders Ukraine’s entry as a full-fledged partner in the world economy is the low competitiveness of its products on world markets. From industrial goods in the markets of far abroad no more than 1% of the goods can compete.

In addition, even those goods that are in demand in foreign markets do not meet international standards. Thus, almost all cast iron does not have world certificates, with a low range of castings, which leads to high metal content of products, metal waste of almost 25%. In addition, the lack of staff and their insufficient professional level makes the system of management of foreign economic activity imperfect. In recent years, the situation in this area has deteriorated significantly.

What are the reasons for this?

First, the severance of economic ties with the countries of the former Soviet Union. As a result, Ukraine has lost many of its markets, many companies have stopped due to lack of components, and so on. Moreover, Russia has largely lost interest in appliances, machines, as well as molten metal, etc., manufactured in our country due to a significant increase in energy consumption, and hence the cost and price of products. Therefore, even those products in which Russia is interested, can not be sold on its market, because they are more expensive than foreign counterparts by 30-50%.

Secondly, the predominance of Ukraine’s fuel group in exports. Its share in 1994. exceeded 72%, and together with consumer goods to more than 90%.

Third, the export of low share of machinery, equipment, intellectual property (patents, licenses, “know-how”). According to the Ministry of Statistics of Ukraine, in 1993 only 0.5% of the total number of new types of machinery and equipment in their technical characteristics were competitive.

Fourth, a small share in the export of goods produced under agreements on international specialization and cooperation of production.

Fifth, the share of barter transactions is growing significantly. If in 1992. it was about 13%, then at the end of 1994. – over 80%. The high level of foreign trade bartering is due to the removal of restrictions on quotas and licensing. It is also characteristic that barter trade applies even to those goods that are highly liquid and were previously sold mainly in foreign currency, are crucial for obtaining foreign exchange earnings of the state. The share of such products in barter trade in 1995. was about 75%.

A significant part of the money earned by exporting companies is deposited in foreign banks. Yes, in 1992. at export of production abroad on 3, 2 billion. dollars the state treasury received only 165 million. only 20% of foreign exchange earnings returned to Ukraine. For 9 months of 1994 abroad, primarily in the countries of the former Soviet Union, settled $ 1.4 billion, and Ukraine received only 0.4 billion. dollars

This also includes the lack of systematic regulation of foreign economic relations, conceptually flawed approaches to the principles of currency control, subjective approaches to the principles of currency control, subjective approaches to determining state priorities in the field of non-customs regulation and the general economic crisis in Ukraine led to a significant reduction foreign trade, catastrophic decline in export efficiency, the destruction of the state currency fund, the emergence of mass abuses and corruption.

But it is impossible to say that nothing is being done in Ukraine in the foreign economic sphere, and an example of this is the international scientific-practical conference on “Reforming the foreign economic sphere of Ukraine” organized by Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, the Verkhovna Rada Commission on Economic policy and management of the national economy, the Ministry of Economy of Ukraine, the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and Trade of Ukraine, a number of other organizations. The conference was attended by scientists and specialists from Ukraine, USA, Russia, Germany, China and other countries.

It was noted at the conference that in the foreign economic sphere Ukraine faces fundamentally new goals in implementing the modern concept of including the economy in the system of world economic relations: the use of foreign economic relations to stop the economic downturn and stabilize the socio- economic situation; development of exports as a structural factor; accumulation of additional financial resources for the purpose of structural adjustment; conducting a policy of transitional protectionism.

According to the conference participants, the possibilities of import-substituting policy for Ukraine in the face of a sharp decline in social production and reduced domestic demand are very limited, so there is an urgent need to develop a special program for export development. The basis for the practical application of specific export promotion measures proposed by the conference participants may be the division of all types of production into uncompetitive, weakly competitive and competitive.

When discussing the problems of international capital movements, it was noted that Ukrainian producers need to move more widely to the establishment of their branches and joint ventures abroad as a more efficient and developed form of international economic communication. This allows to bypass many restrictions and barriers on the way of export of Ukrainian products to the CIS member states, to the European Union, to the Eastern European states.

The extension of the national regime to foreign investment in Ukraine must be supported by stimulating the inflow of resources from abroad to certain regions of the country, greater involvement of foreign investors in the privatization process and stabilization of the legal field of investors. At the same time, this will allow legalizing the export of the shadow economy, which reaches, according to some estimates, 30-40% of the volume of officially registered exports.

In general, I consider the problem of attracting foreign investment to Ukraine very relevant today, it should be considered more closely because, in my opinion, everyone has long understood their need, but the relevant legal framework has not yet been created. Therefore, we will consider this issue more specifically in the next paragraph.


International labor migration in Ukraine. Abstract

The concept of international labor migration. Classification of components, factors and types of international migration. Analysis of the consequences of migration in the labor market

The concept of international labor migration. International labor migration is a component of the world economic system, it is the result of the evolution of labor, the system of international division of labor and integration. According to UN experts, in 2000. about 140 million people, ie about 2% of the world’s population did not live in the country in which they were born.

International labor migration is associated with the formation, development and decline of nations and states. It is the resultant function of a whole range of economic and non-economic factors: it is caused by differences in current income levels, unemployment, the need to find work in other countries and other economic causes, as well as wars, natural disasters and other non-economic events.

Migration is understood as the permanent or temporary resettlement of people across existing state borders due to economic, as well as political, social, and sometimes military events. It is possible to give such, more formal definition of this phenomenon personal narratives topics.

International labor migration is the permanent or temporary movement of the working population from one country to another, caused by both economic and non-economic reasons.

Historically, the phenomenon of migration – a necessary and natural attribute of international relations, the coexistence of different peoples, ethnic and social groups, countries. Therefore, the origins of migration cannot even be determined. The free or forced movement of large masses of people has always taken place, insofar as the historical memory of mankind is “sufficient.”

Instead, we can talk about how and when individual nations and states were formed due to international migration. After all, modern countries such as the United States and Australia are generally countries whose populations, in addition to Indians and Aboriginal tribes, are formed by the principle of migrants, and the vast majority of people are either descendants of migrants or are migrants themselves. By the way, many of these people are natives of Ukraine, whose typical fate was, as is well known, described by domestic writer V. Korolenko.

Classification of components, factors and types of international migration. International migration, like a coin, has two sides that do not exist separately from each other, but are aspects of a single migration process. These are emigration and immigration.

Emigration is the departure of the able-bodied population from the country outside its borders.

Immigration is the entry of able-bodied people into the country from abroad.